The Liberation of the Shiite Individual - 1

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The Liberation of the Shiite Individual - 1

2013 / 08 / 24

In the Name of Allah, the All-Merciful, the All-Beneficent.

My word in all issues is the word of the Family of Mohammad (may peace be upon them) in what they have kept secret as well as what they have announced publicly, and in what has come to me from them, and in what has not come to me.

Praise be to Allah, the Lord of all the worlds, and may the best blessings and purest peace be upon the one sent as a mercy to all the creatures, our Master, Mohammad, and his good and pure Household, and may the curse of Allah be upon all of their enemies until the Day of Judgment.

«Those who follow the Messenger, the Ummi Prophet, whom they find described in the Torah and the Gospel with them. He enjoins on them that which is right and forbids them from that which is evil, and he makes lawful for them what is good and makes unlawful for them what is bad, and removes from them their burden and the shackles which where upon them. So, those who believe in him and honor him and help him, and follow the light which has been sent down with him, these are the successful.» [1]

This noble verse is one of the most elegant verses of the Holy Qur’an – and all the verses of the Qur’an are elegant. It depicts for us the signs of the last Prophetic movement, this movement whom the previous Prophets (may peace be upon them) have given glad tidings to, and have made the nations look forward to it similar to how they look forward to the sun when its light shine to tear apart the darkness.

He is the Ummi – the Meccan – Messenger, whose name shine clearly in the Torah and the Gospel (the ones that haven’t been corrupted), and he is the Messenger whose signs of his movement is in accordance to what those Holy Books have given glad tidings to:

Three signs of the last Prophetic movement

Firstly: He enjoins on them that which is right and forbids them from that which is evil. All things that give them progress and lead them to perfection, this Messenger will always call them to, either by command or by prevention, by will or by intimidation, so that the diseased people around him are healed, without them having to wait for him to approach, but rather he approaches them and goes around them, which is how the Commander of the Faithful (may peace be upon him) described him, saying: «He is a healer wandering with his medicine.» [2] May Allah’s blessings be upon him and his family. This is the first thing.

Secondly: He makes lawful for them what is good and makes unlawful for them what is bad, by which he heals their selves, their souls, their mentalities, and their bodies. He explains to them what form of diet they should look for, be it diet for their selves, their souls, their mentalities, or their bodies, so that they may refrain from the bad diet and the bad in-comings that corrupt their selves, their souls, their mentalities, and their bodies alike. Among these good things – and perhaps the best of them – is to «take knowledge from its people» and among those bad things – and perhaps the worst of them – is «the saying of those who oppose» which was mentioned in the narration of Imam al-Baqir (may peace be upon him) [3]. This is the second thing.

Thirdly: He removes from them their burden and the shackles which where upon them. A burden is a heavy thing which binds its carrier and keeps him from moving due to its heaviness, similar to how a ship is bound when its anchors are dropped down to the bottom of the ocean. As for shackles, they are the plural of a shackle, and they are the manacles that constrain a person in his neck or his hands, like iron chains, which makes him a humble captive or a prisoner. These are the burdens and shackles whom this Messenger (may Allah’s blessings be upon him and his family) came to dismantle and to remove them from people’s backs and necks, so that he may free them, make them live in freedom and smell the air of freedom.

Freedom is to become the servant of Allah alone, not anyone else, which is what the Master of Eloquence (may peace be upon him) said: «Do not be the servant of others when Allah has made you free.» [4] Regardless if this «others» is a devil, or an idol, or a ruler, or a government, or a party, or materialism, or lust, or any other thing.

Do not make the ground a ceil above your head

Freedom is to be ceiled by the laws of the Heaven, not the Earth, similar to how when you walk you are ceiled by the sky, not the ground. However, if you walk like this with your body, but your behaviour differs by following the earthly laws that were innovated in a state of ignorance, then the laws of the earth will affect the laws of the Heaven, by which you will be ceiled by the ground, and not by the sky, and make the ground a ceil above your head! Similar to how someone walks upside-down on his head and dumped on his face! «Is he who walks while dumped on his face more rightly guided? Or he who walks upright on the straight path?» [5]

Be free in the middle of the capsized society

Do not care if the others were overturned like this or if the majority go in this direction, but rather you should be free, even if that would lead to you being strange in the middle of the capsized society. Imam al-Baqir (may Allah’s blessings be upon him) said: «The believer is strange in this world and between this capsized creation, until he departs from this place to the mercy of Allah.» [6]

Those who believe in this freedom that came with the Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s blessings be upon him and his family) – and whom the Prophets (may peace be upon them) have given glad tidings to – and pledged their allegiance to the Prophet (may Allah’s blessings be upon him and his family), and assisted him, and revered him, and supported him by sacrificing their hearts for his sake, and believed in the light that was sent down with him – that is Ali and the Imams from his sons (may peace be upon them), according to what has come in the noble narrations [7] – these are the successful. They will have success in this world and the Hereafter, and will be free in this world and the Hereafter, and will be Masters in this world and the Hereafter.

Are we as such?

Who made us become pleased with suffering and degradation?

I see that most of us are unaware and unconscious of the reality that the sovereignty belongs to others than us, and that the sublimity belongs to others than us, and among the great mass of nations, we are nothing! How are we not so, while our holy sites still remain demolished and occupied, as for Al-Baqee’ for example?! How are we not so, when we are still being killed, and tortured, and persecuted, and defiled?! How are we not so, when we don’t have control of our matters in our own countries, and we’re being taken over by others?! How not, and how, and how…

I don’t think I’m in need of numbering the depicts of our painful reality. And what is more painful in this is that we find this pleasant and joyful! To such a degree that this reality has become normal to us and we don’t look forward to change it! And if one of us call to change it, he is suddenly met with glances of disapproval and is boiled in the fire of the blacksmith, as if he had called to the change of our instinct!

What has made us pleasant with suffering and degradation? These are the burdens and the shackles that we have bound ourselves to, and by which we have prevented ourselves from freedom and sovereignty.

We have inherited these heavy weights from the past in failure to observe that they’re neither obligatory nor required upon us. Indeed, we have inherited them either out of indolence or carelessness from our predecessors. And here we are, instead of wiping them off our journey of revival and superiority – which is encouraged by the teachings of our Prophet and our Imams (may peace be upon them) – we inherit them to our children! So that the Shiite individual will remain forever chained, bound, oppressed, distressed, prevented from his rights, having his honoured defiled, and still, he is asked to cheer and rejoice!

No! Between me and Allah (Exalted is He), I don’t find my conscience confident if I take part in the continuation of this state! I don’t accept to participate in the continuation of the Shiite individual being a prisoner to incorrect thoughts and understandings which Allah has not legislated, by which his immense power is stopped, or wasted in what has no benefit. This way, we will lose this golden cultural opportunity, which if the Shiite nation had seized this opportunity, it would’ve retrieved the sovereignty of this world, and would certainly bring closer the Awaited Day, in which the Mahdi of the Family of Mohammad (may Allah’s blessings be upon them) will reappear to establish the state of truth and justice, and to fill the world with equity and justice after it has been filled with oppression and tyranny.

Making advantage of the current cultural accumulation to make a Shi’a the Master of himself

Indeed, I wish my people knew! I wish they knew that we’re on the edge of reaching an age where the Shiite individual is the Master of himself, free, efficient, honoured, having no one raised above him!

We are close to reaching this age because the keys of its formation is in our hands, which were brought with the teachings of our Imams (may blessings and peace be upon them). We are close to reaching it because the current age goes through a great travail in which the cultures amass with one another, and the powers are being ground, and the movements undulate. Therefore, it is a great travail, because it will certainly lead to a new age in which all people will submit to the strongest, and the most honoured, and the most superior, which is what happened in every state of cultural accumulation during the history of mankind.

If we realise that we are the strongest, and the most honoured, and the most superior, or even less: if we discover the reality of what our cultural heritage carries of essential elements that lead to this, and if we discover the reality of what we possess of outstanding resources and immense powers; if we realise and discover this, and thereupon enter this cultural travail with ambitions, and decision, and steadiness, the result will be to our benefit.

The importance of walking on the journey of superiority

If we do not become the greatest power after the end of this travail, we are still sure to reserve a seat among the greater powers and the greater leaders of the world. Also, if we walk on the journey of revival and superiority itself, then it will not take long before we become the greater and dominating power of this world, which will certainly make ready for the reappearance of the Master of this world – and of all the worlds – our Leader, the Master of the Age, the Authoritative, son of Hassan (may Allah’s blessings be upon both of them, and may Allah hasten his noble reappearance).

This is not an imaginary dream, although it’s a right of a Shiite human being to dream at least! And how many dreamers are there whose dreams have become true! We have the example of the Jewish Theodor Herzl who lived in a state contemptibility and despicability, however, he dreamt that there will be a great Jewish state one day that will rule the world. He dreamt that his people will be freed from the humiliation, the slavery, and the despicability that have been upon them throughout thousands of years, and to unite after their separation and become the leaders of the world. He dreamt and his dream was realised, even though he died before that happened.

I repeat, what I’m saying is not a dream, nor an imaginary speculation. It is a vision which Allah has promised for the believers, that they should be the sublime. He (Exalted is He) said: «And do not weaken, nor grieve, and you are the sublime, if you are indeed believers.» [8]

Regardless how much the fronts of disbelief, and opposition, and deception try to stop the preeminence of the Shiite culture, and regardless how much our enemies strive in fighting us with their plotting, they will not succeed. Victory shall certainly be ours because we are «the sublime».

When the great Prophet Moses, son of ‘Imran (may Allah’s blessings be upon both of them and upon Mohammed and his pure family), went into challenging his opponents, when the magicians threw their ropes and rods, and in which the people were conceited by their magic into believing that they were snakes, Allah thereupon promised Moses (may peace be upon him): «We said: Do not grieve! Indeed, you are the highest!» [9]

This is a promise from Allah to Moses (may peace be upon him) with victory and superiority, because he is «the sublime». And by this same address whom Allah (Exalted is He) had spoken to Moses (may peace be upon him), He (Exalted is He) has addressed us with the same thing, saying: «And do not weaken, nor grieve, and you are the sublime, if you are indeed believers.» [10]

So, this is a promise from Allah (Exalted is He) to us with victory and superiority, as well as being the highest, however, with the condition of we being true «believers».

If the believers act with their belief, no one will ever predominate them, not even in this world, nor will anyone ever have a means to success against them. Allah (Exalted is He) said: «And Allah will never give the disbelievers a way (of success) against the believers.» [11]

If the believers act with their belief, the honour and the superior power will belong to them, in accordance to what Allah (Glorious is He) has given glad tidings to, saying: «The honour belongs to Allah, and to His Messenger, and to the believers, however, the hypocrites do not know.» [12]

Our possession of the superior leadership is a possible aspiration, not an imaginary one

So, if we aim towards becoming the dominating nation on behalf of other nations during this cultural accumulation we live in, then these aims are possible and genuine, not imaginary. What is required from us however, is that we act with our belief, and not just to keep it in our hearts, because belief without action, is no belief.

How much are we unaware that we may ascend and predominate and obtain the superior leadership on this world?! How much are we unaware of what we possess of a great, infallible, Prophetic curriculum, which if we had applied it, this would have been realised to us.

To seek sublimity and domination is one of the essential points which our religion calls to. There should be no other religion on the face of the earth that is more sublime than ours. There should be no other culture on the face of the earth that is more sublime than ours. No one should control us, but rather we should be the free ones, the leaders, who impose our laws on this earth. We shouldn’t impose them with the force of compulsion, but only with the force of civilisation.

Similar to as we see that the laws of the Western culture are generally the superior above us and all nations today, although many of these laws have been imposed with the force of compulsion; there are still some of them – especially during the latest years – that have been imposed with the force of civilisation. What I mean by this is that the West is more astonishing in its cultural improvement and predomination than the rest of nations, which has caused it – either we observe it or not – to become the all-round culture, in addition to the opinions, behaviours, and ways of life which it carries, be they healthy or not.

Sorrow and pain for our submission to despised and despicable cultures

And under this shadow; how painful is it to see ourselves – we, the Shi’as of the Family of Mohammad (may peace be upon them) – being drifted as well to this culture, and even to cultures that are more despised and more despicable than ours, such as the Bakri culture, for example.

When you see that the one who is supposed to represent the Shiite culture; speaks – while wearing the turban – with a Bakri logic, and even thinks with a Bakri logic, and is afraid of the minority, and is defeated – and even lays down – in front of everyone who is different than him…then, in such a situation, you have to send peace upon the Shi’as and Shiism!

They have gone, those sincere Shiites who didn’t accept for anyone to cross the limit against them! They have passed, those brave ones whose faith reached the extent that they would confront everyone who opposed them, and slap them with the truth on their faces, even if they were tyrannical rulers!

The principle of: Islam predominates, and nothing predominates it

Yes, may the mercy of Allah be upon those great ones who used to apply this significant jurisprudential principle, the golden principle, the principle of honour, and dignity, and superiority, the principle that came with the Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s blessings be upon him and his family), when he said: «Islam predominates, and nothing predominates it.» [13]

Who among us paid attention to this great principle and applied it on his practical life? And those who did pay attention to it, such as the students of knowledge in the scientific Hawza, did they examine this principle in the view of abundance and comprehensiveness? Or did they keep it restricted to some ordinary judgments and fatwas? Or you may say: Did they realise the significance of this principle and review its wide frame which covers the other parts of the practical life of the believer?

I would be exaggerating if I said that most of us paid any attention to this principle in the first place, if not realising its significance and understanding it well enough.

Yes, the jurists do mention this principle, and they subdivide many jurisprudential judgments and matters out of it, however, those who are busy with seeking knowledge pass by it and taste it without catching its fruit!

For example, they are asked: Is it allowed for a disbelieving man to marry a Muslim woman? They will reply: No, because Islam predominates, and nothing predominates it, and the Muslim becomes higher than the disbeliever, so he is not allowed to predominate her.

When they are asked: A Muslim woman accepted Islam, and her disbelieving husband didn’t. What is the judgment here? They will reply: There is no means for him to dominate her, because Allah didn’t make for the disbelievers a way of domination on behalf of the believers, and Islam predominates, and nothing predominates it. So, this woman is separated from her husband as long as he remains on his disbelief, and she is forbidden from him after her iddah.

When they are asked: A disbelieving slave accepted Islam. Will the authority of his master remain upon him? They will reply: No, because Islam predominates, and nothing predominates it. So, from the beginning of this slave’s acceptance of Islam, he is regarded as free, and the authority of the disbeliever doesn’t count on him, because by his acceptance of Islam, he has become higher than the disbeliever.

When they are asked: Is it allowed for a ruler to appoint a disbelieving governor upon the Muslims? They will reply: No. Islam predominates, and nothing predominates it, so a disbeliever may not have authority upon a Muslim.

When they are asked: A Muslim dies and he has a disbelieving son. Will he inherit anything from him? They will reply: No. And they will reply with the reply of Imam al-Baqir (may peace be upon him): «Allah (Glorious and Exalted is He) does not increase us in Islam with nothing but honour. We inherit them, and they do not inherit us.» [14]

When they are asked: Is it allowed for a disbeliever to exceed the height of his building more than that of the Muslims? They will reply: No. Islam predominates. A Muslim is more honoured. A Muslim is higher.

All of these judgments and their parallels have their source in this principle, the principle of «Islam predominates», and these are their widespread confirmations in the books of jurisprudence and judgments.

However – and this is the most important thing – what is the significance of this principle? What is its aim?

Its significance is to disregard all that promotes the predomination of a non-Muslim on behalf of a Muslim, because there is no judgment in the law which allows such a thing. This is from the negative view. As for the positive view, it is the aim behind this principle, which is to accomplish the sublimity of a Muslim on behalf of others, to accomplish the Islamic pre-excellency, the Islamic domination, the Islamic sovereignty, because nothing at all predominates Islam.

And if it was to happen in any historical period – such as the period we live in –that there were any dominance and sovereignty to other than Islam; then this would require from the Muslims to mobilise their abilities and powers to correct this disorder.

Our responsibility is to realise the cultural predomination

A true Muslim never submits to anyone, nor does he accept that others overtop him. A true Muslim never lets the earthly cultures overtop the Heavenly culture. He doesn’t let the corrupt, illiberal and diseased cultures overtop the optimal humanistic Islamic culture.

So, the applying of the principle of «Islam predominates» is not restricted into those subdivided judgments that are widespread in texts of jurisprudence, but rather it has to do with the other aspects of life, and it has more wide and spacious fields to be applied in. In reality it has to do with all fields and scopes. When it comes to economy, for example, then we’re the ones who should be controlling the global economy. The same applies for social life, and politics, and technology. We are the ones who should be the dominating, we should be the prominent, we should be those who are always the predominating.

The responsibility of each one of us is to assist in accomplishing this universal cultural predomination, because it is the call of the Messenger of Allah (may Allah’s blessings be upon him and his family): «Islam predominates, and nothing predominates it.» This is the call of Allah (Glorious and Exalted is He) who «…made the word of those who disbelieved the nethermost, and the word of Allah the uppermost…» [15] and He promised to prevail His religion «…over all religion, even though the polytheists hate it.» [16]

How fascinating is it then that we pay attention to applying this great principle by this universality and this expansion! And how fascinating is it that we may have self-confidence and mental readiness to face the grand cultural challenge, and to take a step forward in accomplishing our cultural predominance of all nations!

We have to believe from the depths of our hearts that we are the highest. We have to constantly mention this noble verse: «And do not weaken, nor grieve, and you are the sublime, if you are indeed believers.» [17]

The Shi’as don’t know their own value

O believers! O Shi’as of Ali! You are the sublime! You are the sublime!

You are the Shi’as of Ali, to whom there is no one higher than Allah (Glorious is He) and His sealing Prophet (may Allah’s blessings be upon him and his family). And you are the ones to whom there is no one higher than you in Islam. You are the ones to whom there is no one more honoured in Islam. You are the top of all tops in Islam. Islam only predominates with you, and nothing predominates it. Know the value of yourselves.

Our Imam al-Sadiq (may Allah’s blessings be upon him) said: «Indeed, everything has something of a high renown, and the high renown of Islam are the Shi’as. Indeed, everything has a pedestal, and the pedestal of Islam are the Shi’as. Indeed, everything has a peak, and the peak of Islam are the Shi’as. Indeed, everything has an honour, and the honour of Islam are the Shi’as. Indeed, every thing has a master, and the master of the congregations are the congregations of the Shi’as. Indeed, everything has a leader, and the leader of the earth is a land that is inhabited by Shi’as. By Allah, if there were none of you on the earth, herbage would never have been seen. By Allah, if there were none of you on the earth, Allah would not have sent graces upon your opposers, neither had they taken pleasure in good things, nor would they have any good fortune in this world nor in the Hereafter! Every Nasib, even if he devotes himself to worship and strives (to do so), he is assigned to this verse: “Labouring, weary, thrown in hot fire.” Every diligent Nasib, his deeds are wasted!» [18]

Let us carefully consider the words of our Imam. After he states that we, the Shi’as, are the high renown of Islam and the pedestal of Islam, he says: «Indeed, everything has a peak, and the peak of Islam are the Shi’as. Indeed, everything has an honour, and the honour of Islam are the Shi’as.»

The peak is the highest and most honoured parts of something, and honour is sublimity and the high point. On this basis, we are, as confirmed by the Sadiq of the Family of Mohammad (may peace be upon him), the most high and honoured among the Muslims. We are the most sublime. We are the people of excellence, even on behalf of our opposers. Were it not for our existence, Allah would not have sent any of the graces upon them which they take pleasure of in this world. He (may peace be upon them) takes an oath that this is true! He says: « By Allah, if there were none of you on the earth, Allah would not have sent graces upon your opposers, neither had they taken pleasure in good things…»

This world in which they take pleasure – they only take this pleasure in it because of our existence, because Allah bestows upon the opposers through the believers similar to how He bestows upon the disbelievers through the Muslims, in accordance to His wisdom for the human beings’ need for one another.

Allah (Exalted is He) looks upon our opposers with mercy and compassion in honour to us. Therefore, they are beholden to us, we are their masters and their chiefs.

This is not any vanity or arrogance, but rather it’s only an explanation of a truth which one shouldn’t discuss. Because, as it’s confirmed that the most honoured to Allah (Exalted is He) is he who is the most pious, because He (Glorious and Exalted is He) says: «The most honourable of you for Allah is he amongst you who is the most pious» [19], then one cannot escape the saying that the most honoured to Allah (Exalted is He) is the Shiite person, because he is the most pious as compared to others. That is because he has held on to the command of Allah (Glorious is He) in befriending the pure Family of the Prophet (may Allah’s blessings be upon him and his family), and following them and accompanying them.

If this is the case, then how can we – while we are the highest masters – lower ourselves in front of those who are lower than us?! How can we be outraged and weakened by them?! Why do we accept that anyone may cross the limits against us?! Why do we accept that others prevail us?!

Why do others handle our matters and take pleasure in our destinies, and why do we furthermore accept the tiny pieces they give us?! Why do we accept that others impose their laws by which they don’t only control our material matters, but even our religious matters?! And till when will we remain defeatists to others?! Till when will we feel that we are worth less than others?! Why do we habituate ourselves to accept the oppression and injury that is caused by others against us?! Why do we accept for anyone to overpower us?! Why do we care for the others and consider a thousand times for every move of ours, in fear that it may discomfort them, meanwhile the others don’t care for us at all, nor do they have any consideration for us at all?!

A Shiite person has consideration to everyone, meanwhile no one has any consideration to him

I do not limit the word «the others» here to Bakris only, but rather I generalise it to everyone who falls under the category of being «the other». A Shiite person in this age – very unfortunately – has consideration to everyone, meanwhile no one has any consideration to him! He is oppressed, and he remains silent! He is robbed, and he remains silent! He is slapped, and he remains silent! As if he has no value! He has no right for anything! He is nothing but a subordinate to those ’great ones who play with his destiny and impose their rules upon him! And I don’t want to use more intense phrases and say that in their eyes, he’s nothing but a slave!

What has brought us to this state?! What is the reason to our withdrawal from the position of sovereignty and improvement, whereas we now live in a state of termination and annihilation?! Despite that in the eyes of Allah, and in the eyes of His Messenger (may Allah’s blessings be upon him and his family) and the pure Imams (may peace be upon them), we are the most honoured, and the highest, and the most admired, and this is how we should be in reality.

The truth is that we have killed the aspiration of reaching the top in ourselves. We have killed the reflection of reaching sovereignty in our selves. We have killed the demand of sublimity in our selves. In our lives, we only live accordingly to that which is common and general, without thinking of any change. This is due to nothing else other than our adaption of this shameful reality to such a degree that none of us – except for the extraordinary – would ever realise that there is terrible disorder here that has to be corrected. It is here that one has to call for the ending of the withdrawal and retreat of the Shi’as’ position on the scale of balance between the greater powers of the world.

This way of thinking is absent from us, and even the understanding of this terrible disorder is absent from us as well, and so it goes to what we began our speech with. These are the shackles and the burdens, the intellectual chains that we have imposed on ourselves, and that have become fundamental elements in the common Shiite mind, despite that they were unexpected and accidental! And they have killed our aspiration, and restricted our enthusiasm!

Therefore – dear believing brethren – we are in need of liberating this mentality from these chains which Allah has not legislated. We are in need of a reconsideration – even if it may be a general one – of our common culture and the way of our thinking, in order to limit the delays of our making of progress and the hinders of our achievement of sovereignty. Thereupon we should present all that upon the path of the Qur’an and its Equals (may Allah’s blessings be upon them), so that we may see whether this adaption of our reality is acceptable according to this path or not.

The Shiite individual today is a prisoner to bad thoughts he believes to be legitimate, and to conducts he believes to be ethical. And this is what prevents him from reaching sovereignty by which he would be the master of this world.

The importance of liberating the Shiite individual from bad and wrong thoughts

We are in need of rescuing this individual and liberate him from these bad thoughts and wrong conducts. And in other words: We are in need of opening prospects in front of him, and to re-establish the legitimate concepts into him, which will cause the vanishing of these fabricated concepts that have increased upon his mentality throughout the ages and have become a burden which prevents him from liveliness and making progress.

For this reason we’ll attempt, with the will Allah (Exalted is He), in this series of lectures entitled «The Liberation of the Shiite individual» to remove this amassed dust, in hope that Allah (Exalted is He) may give us the success to do so. With the support of Allah (Exalted is He), we’ll go into the fields of the common Shiite way of thinking that are the most widespread today, and we’ll attempt to measure the distance between it and between the fields of the true Imami and Rafidhi way of thinking, whom the pure Imams (may Allah’s blessings be upon them) strived to mount its pillar and define its teachings, and which they had called us to putting it into practice, so that we may predominate, and nothing may predominate us.

And may Allah send His blessings upon Mohammad and his pure Family.



[1] The Qur'an 7:158

[2] Nahjul-Balagha, volume 1, page 208, sermon 108 (as part of a sermon)

[3] Al-Kafi, by Al-Kulayni, volume 1, page 429

[4] Nahjul-Balagha, letter 31

[5] The Qur'an 67:23

[6] Kamil al-Ziyarat, by Ibn Qawlawayh, page 463

[7] In Tafseer al-'Ayyashi, volume 2, page 31, of Al-Baqir (may peace be upon him): «The light is Ali (may peace be upon him).» And in Al-Kafi, by Al-Kulayni, volume 1, page 194, of Al-Sadiq (may peace be upon him): «The light in this place is Ali, the Commander of the Faithful, and the Imams (may peace be upon them).»

[8] The Qur'an 3:140

[9] The Qur'an 20:69

[10] The Qur'an 4:142

[11] The Qur'an 3:140

[12] The Qur'an 63:9

[13] Man La Yahdhuruhul-Faqih, by Al-Saduq, volume 4, page 334, and Mustadrak al-Wasa'el, by Al-Nouri, volume 17, page 142, of Awali al-Laa'i

[14] Man La Yahdhuruhul-Faqih, by Al-Saduq, volume 4, page 334

[15] The Qur'an 9:40

[16] The Qur'an 9:33

[17] The Qur'an 3:140

[18] Al-Kafi, by Al-Kulayni, volume 8, page 212

[19] The Qur'an 49:14

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