Who is "al-Awwal" referred to in Ziyarat Ashura?

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Salaam,

Who is referred to the Awwal in 'allahumma khussa anta awwala zaalemin' in Ziyarature Ashura


In His Name the Most High,

All praise is due to Allah, may peace be upon Muhammad and his pure progeny and may the curse of Allah be upon their enemies.

The Office Answer:

Assalamu Alaikum,

In consultation with Sheikh al-Habib;

Al-Awwal (i.e. first) is Abu Bakr son of Abu Quhafa, al-Thani (i.e. second) is Umar son of Khattab, al-Thalith (i.e. third) is Uthman son of Affan and al-Rabi' (i.e. fourth) is Mu'awiyah (may the wrath of Allah be upon them all).

23 Rabi' al-Akhir 1346
The Office of Sheikh al-Habib in London

23 Rabi' al-Akhir 1346


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